2014 PAPER PRESENTERS
Click to view 2013 PAPER PRESENTERS
The 2015 Chicago ICE Paper Presenters will be announced in late January of 2015.
Dr. Eugena K. Griffin
Licensed Clinical Psychologist
Paper Title: Uniformed Teacher Training: A 3 Factor Framework by Dr. Eugena Kenyatta Griffin & Dr. Trina Lynn Yearwood
The teacher’s role is essential to the overall development of youth. Thus, the uniformity of training for aspiring teachers is paramount and should reflect foci on culturally responsive pedagogy, development of a mentoring mindset, and community practica supporting multiculturalism. To facilitate such development, aspiring teachers should be required to take courses pertaining to culturally responsive teaching, as well as commence their student-teaching within a community that is different than theirs. Aspiring teachers should be required to study the psycho-social experiences, both historical and present of diverse communities. Community differential is along the scope of socioeconomic status, ethnic & racial groups, mental or physical disability status, and/or religious orientation. These types of experiential learning opportunities are necessary to enhance a multicultural mindset; positioning aspiring teachers to better connect with the postulated increase of diverse student populations. Aspiring teachers should have mentors, but also use experiential opportunity for developing a model of mentorship for their future students. Educators are more effective when demonstrating a concern not only for student academic achievement within classrooms, but a concern regarding student overall well being. Thus, educators have to be willing to answer possible questions that may pertain to student interests outside of the scope of the classroom, tap into student extra-curricular activities, and current & future career aspirations. There must be deliberate efforts to uniformly prepare aspiring teachers to meet the changing needs of diverse students and communities. The proposed framework presents the key to enhancing the role and influence of teacher training.
Martina Dickson, PhD
Emirates College for Advanced Education, Abu Dhabi, UNITED ARAB EMIRATES
Paper Title: Newly Trained Teachers in the United Arab Emirates: How Practical and Student-Centered is their Classroom Teaching?
School teaching in Abu Dhabi, the capital of the United Arab Emirates, has historically been heavily focused on textbook use, utilizing didactic and teacher-centered methodology. Effective implementation of educational reforms initiated in 2009 by Abu Dhabi Educational Council require a different approach to teaching altogether, one where a far greater emphasis is placed on hands-on, practical activity and student-centered learning. Additionally, teachers need to be confident and effective in the implementation of strategies such as inquiry-based learning, exploratory and experiential learning. One dedicated teacher-training college was set up in Abu Dhabi specifically to produce such a caliber of graduates. Last year, we interviewed final year students at the college, then pre-service teachers, and explored their perceptions of teaching and predictions of the kinds of teacher they would like to be upon graduation. One year on, we follow these now novice first year primary school teachers and researched (by gathering qualitative data via interview) the kind of teacher they have indeed become. Participants were asked about the types of lessons they teach within the context of science education in primary schools, the teaching methodologies they employ and the correlation of these to the goals and ideals of Abu Dhabi’s ambitious educational reforms. We asked them to describe their frequency of usage of hands-on, practical activities and student-centered learning methods in science. The challenges and barriers perceived to be hindering them from teaching for student-centered learning effectively were a recurring theme of the participant interviews, along with a perceived wide gap between college pedagogical theory and the reality of classroom teaching. We draw comparisons between their predictions and their actual teaching, offer suggested explanations and make recommendations for future teacher-training methodology on the basis of the findings.
Larry J. Walker
Research fellow in the School of Graduate Studies
Doctoral student at Morgan State University in the Urban Educational Leadership program, USA
Paper Title: Teacher Retention in Urban Schools
Urban schools throughout the Unites States struggle to retain qualified teachers. Since the passage of the “No Child Left Behind Act” schools continue to eliminate art and music programs while preparing students for annual assessments. Unfortunately, the focus on reading and math tests has dramatically altered school curriculums throughout the country. The increased focus on testing causes novice and veteran teachers to feel pressured by school administrators to dramatically increase standardized test scores. The researcher examined data from the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) in addition to state and local studies to examine which programs and policies lower teacher attrition rates.
Ensuring schools can retain highly qualified teachers is vital. Frequently schools located in under-served communities struggle to lower attrition rates because of a myriad of problems including limited funding, high student to teacher ratios and limited administrative support. Retaining highly qualified teachers in urban schools has a strong impact on student achievement. For this reason, identifying school districts that have successfully recruited and retained teachers is critical. Effective data driven programs can provide a template for school districts located in underserved communities. Programs that increase teacher retention rates could help school districts lower the achievement gap between White and Non-White students.
This study includes findings, implications for K-12 schools and recommendations for future research.
Ms. Khatuna Katamadze
Akaki Tsereteli State University, GEORGIA
Paper Title: Face in schools in addressing the development needs of children with disabilities in Georgia.
Providing special education services to children with disabilities is a novel idea in the Caucasus region. Having the same access to opportunities and activities as children not living with disabilities, as well as being part of the local community, is important to the many Georgian children living with disabilities and their parents. Without special education programs, many children who could be very successful academically end up failing. Through special education, children get the assistance they need according to their abilities. Parents play a key role in child development. However, due to educational barriers affecting how they can best care for their children, parents’ participation in their children’s educational and physical development, as well as in community activities, is very low.
The purpose of the study is to identify barriers that parents of children with special needs faced in schools that have an effect on their participation in school and community activities for supporting their children’s development process.
Quantitative method was used for assessing barriers that influence disabled children’s parents’ level of involvement in the education process. Ten parents of disabled children were recruited for in-depth interviews and one focus group was conducted for parents of children with disabilities.
Results showed that parents face educational barriers and societal stigmas that negatively affect their children’s development, as well as participation in school and community activities. From the results, problems including withdrawals, loneliness, loss of confidence, school problems, and bullying were underlined. Therefore, it is important educate the parents about the opportunities to be involved in their children’s education and socialization. By increasing parental involvement of special education pupils, these parents will increase their interaction with their children and will become more responsive and sensitive to their children’s social, emotional, and intellectual developmental needs.
Dr. Kunle Oke Oloruntegbe
Acting Director of Institute of Education
Adekunle Ajasin University, NIGERIA
Paper Title: Creating productive parent and community involvements in science education of the youth
Researches have it that academic interests and competencies in science and mathematics in children often begin at home where parents and the community play vital roles. These vital ingredients have not been fully explored in students’ science learning in many societies, particularly in the developing world because of numerous social economic factors. This present study investigated these factors through a survey of both the secondary school (high school) students and their parents in two Nigerian rural and urban communities. Validated structured questionnaire and interview were used for data collection. The data were analyzed to answer three research questions. The findings revealed numerous factors including educational background, proficiency in science, time and efforts of parents and how these impacted on students’ science learning. Suggestions on how to explore these vital ingredients the more for improvement of science education were given.
Mikhail Korenman, Ph.D.
International Educational and Cultural Services
Presenters discuss how an extended day chess program for inner-city students promoted the equality of education and provided an opportunity for disadvantaged students to strengthen their motivation toward schooling, develop their social skills, and contributed to the development of problem solving skills of the program participants. Presenters discuss findings of data collected during three years of the project and utilize the framework of Daniel Goleman and his research on social intelligence (2006). Presenters conclude that the extended day chess program supported schools in their attempt to assist families in engaging their children in structured, supervised, and goal-oriented activities. Furthermore, the program promoted mastering the reasoning and logistical challenges inherent in the game of chess and, as data indicated, impacted the psycho-emotional needs of students related to the development of positive self-image, self-esteem, and intellectual competence. Since chess skills are relatively rare in high poverty communities, possession of these skills may enhance the students’ feelings of accomplishment and further inspire students to succeed in academics.
Jennifer Laffier (FULL PUBLISHED PAPER by ELA)
University of Ontario Institute of Technology, CANADA
Paper Title: The use of social media by youth to communicate signs and symptoms of depression and suicidal ideation: Considerations for educational programs.
This presentation will explore a current study that is investigating how youth use social media to communicate signs and symptoms of suicide ideation and how this knowledge can inform best practices of educating teachers, parents and students about suicide and responsible use of technology. Preliminary data from this study will be presented. This qualitative study explores (1) how signs and symptoms of suicide ideation and severe depression can present within the context of social media and (2) how these findings can inform the development of school based awareness programs. Phase one of the study involves using a prior developed checklist of signs and symptoms of suicidal ideation from the research to explore 10 youth suicide cases in the media. Using content analysis of media reports, newspapers, and social media sites these cases are being compared to the developed checklist. Several preliminary insights gained from this exploratory case study are: (1) loneliness, depression and hopelessness were key symptoms, (2) images, videos and pictures provided insight to signs and symptoms of suicide, and (3) personality characteristics and frequency of social media use acted as mediators to identifying escalation of mental health distress. Phase 2 of the study involves applying these insights to a review of current educational programs for teachers and students in order to determine gaps and needs for future programming and curriculum development. These insights are explored further in order to make recommendations for future studies and the development educational programs for youth, parents and teachers.
Tim Thomasma, PhD (FULL PUBLISHED PAPER by ELA)
Educator, information technology architect and manager, USA
Paper Title: Engaging the Learning Community with an Integrated E-Learning, Gaming and Social Networking Platform
Our view is that an e-learning platform based on user-created content, gamification, and with an integrated social network, will create a content-dense environment in which all of the stakeholders can maximize their outcomes and in which the best teachers, students, lessons, and organizations rise to the top. The elements of such an integrated e-learning platform would include: * Wizards to enable instructors to quickly create engaging multi-media lessons * Capability to automatically transform lesson content into additional activities, games, and quizzes * The ability for students to take lessons in the form they prefer, including lessons presented as games * Reports and monitoring to enable instructors to track student engagement and outcomes * A safe internal social network to allow teachers, students, administrators, parents and the community to all participate in the discussion * Capability to enable user translation of lessons, allowing for truly global sharing In order to test this hypothesis we are engaging with educators to build a platform called Memarden. The Memarden platform is designed to be a safe, easily accessible on-line environment where teachers, students and those who support and encourage them meet. Memarden enables teachers to create interactive lessons quickly that can be offered to anyone on the platform. Students have profiles and pages where they organize their lessons and interact with other students, teachers, parents, mentors and even future employers. As students use the lessons, Memarden collects data which they can keep private to assess their own progress, or share with teachers or parents who are guiding them. This session is a moderated conversation among education stakeholders from Canada and other countries who use the Memarden platform and can discuss the strengths and weaknesses of using such a technology platform to improve outcomes.
Prof Micheal Van Wyk
University of South Africa
Paper Title: Factors emerged as drivers for online learning: Is there a new pedagogy emerging for the 21st century classroom and beyond?
The challenge for institutions of higher learning is to make provision for a technology integrated teaching and learning mode other than the conventional face-to-face method to accommodate the digital natives. We cannot teach as we were trained during the 1980’s compare to the current student profile which most of them born during the 1990’s. These digital natives brought new challenges to the teaching and learning environment. In all the discussion about learning management systems, open educational resources (OERs), massive open online courses (MOOCs), and the benefits and challenges of online learning, perhaps the most important issues concern how technology is changing the way we teach, and – more importantly – the way students learn. For want of a better term, we call this “pedagogy.” What is clear is that major changes in the way we teach post-secondary students are being triggered by online learning and the new technologies that increase flexibility in, and access to, post-secondary education. The following questions were formulated for this paper: • What drives and contribute to the development of this new pedagogy? • How this new pedagogy is transforming teaching and learning for the 21st century classroom? and • What are the implications of these changes regarding teaching and learning for the 21st century classroom and beyond? These questions are formulated to address online teaching and course design, student learning, and technological choice to spark a dialogue with professors, instructors, and those who work with them to provide online learning, through opportunities for online and face-to-face discussions of the emerging pedagogy. Lastly, this study focus on how it is impacting, not only teaching and learning, but also course design, faculty support and development, student assessment, location of teaching and learning, roles of faculty and students, student support services, and institutional planning beyond the 21st century.
Joyce Silva, PhD
Vice-Coordinator of the Master and Doctorate Program in Education
Universidade Estadual Paulista /UNESP- Campus Rio Claro/SP/ BRAZIL
Co-author: Leila Maria Ferreira Salles
Doctorate in Education at Pontifícia
Universidade Católica de São Paulo, Brazil(1993). Psicology of Education, adolescence and school violence.
Professor at Universidade Estadual
Paulista Júlio de Mesquita Filho , Brazil.
Paper Title: Family, school, and school violence: some reflections
The studies that we have done on young people, violence, and school, have pointed to the importance of conducting research that focus on the relationship between violence in school and family. Teachers and school managers tend to blame families and community in which they live, regarding any violent behavior of the students, exempting the school from any liability for the production and reproduction of violence. The lowest social class family is pointed by educators as an institution increasingly unable to educate the new generations.
The ruptures that are established to what Castel (2008) calls “primary integration networks”, mainly related to the family and the feeling of communitarian belonging, as well as precarious work, which generates the “instability of the stable”, cause the feeling of social insecurity, producing a disbelief in the institutions. This disbelief in institutions marked the relationship between the youth and institutions, generating the questioning of not only their role in the students’ lives, but also relations of authority and bond, which are required for their sense of belonging. Such aspect can compose a reflection on the relationship of these youngsters with school, and violence attitude present in the school environment.
It is in this direction that the central objective of this study is to reflect on the relationship among family, school and school violence. Thus, a summary was done concerning the studies of family and family patterns of relationships. As a field research, we conducted interviews and applied questionnaires to educators in order to analyze their vision about students’ family and the behavior and actions which are considered related to be related to school violence and have family relationship patterns as a source.
Presenter: Robert Wynter, Managing Director and Principal Consultant/Strategist, Strategic Alignment Limited, Jamaica
Paper Title: Transforming Education in Jamaica through Governance, Leadership, Strategy, Accountability and Stakeholder Involvement
Jamaica, while excelling in sports and music, lags behind the Caribbean and the rest of the world in Education outcomes. Despite huge natural resources such as coffee, bauxite, beaches and beautiful landscapes; poverty, crime and other socioeconomic challenges remain resulting in a GDP/Capita of less than US$6,000. While the official published literacy rate is around 90%; Grade 11 performance indicates that less than 15% of the cohort achieves 5 CXC (equivalent to GCE in the UK where the score is 57%) subjects including Math and English. Many studies and several interventions have been done with little impact. Educate JA! is a program that attempts, through school leadership, to transform one school at a time in order to transform one learner at a time. The program involves 7 of the worst performing schools over the past 2 years. Highlights of the transformation approach are: engaging all stakeholders; strategic planning using the Balanced Scorecard system; Board governance training; school leadership and management training; strategy execution support; accountability systems put in place for all staff. The results have been amazing in three of the five schools that started in 2011/12; two have not fully bought on but we expect better results this year and the other two are in the early stages. All this have been done through volunteerism. We believe in the adage that transformation does not necessarily mean additional resources; rather it requires “the renewing of the mind”.
Co-Author: Alexis Nordin
Research and Curriculum Unit
Mississippi State University
Co-Author: Lois Kappler
Research and Curriculum Unit
Mississippi State University
Paper Title: Developing and Implementing Principal- and Teacher-Evaluation Systems in Mississippi
In 2013-2014, the Mississippi Department of Education (MDE) implemented statewide the Mississippi Principal Evaluation System (MPES) and select components of the Mississippi Teacher Evaluation System (MTES). These instruments and the professional development that accompanied them were collaboratively developed by the MDE’s Office of Federal Programs, Teacher Center, and Office of Career and Technical Education in order to help identify best practices in their principals and teachers as well as illuminate areas for improvement. Both were piloted in 2012-2013.
While offering an opportunity to reinvigorate the state’s educational system, the MPES and MTES implementations have presented unique sets of challenges for the MDE and the agencies it contracted to offer training sessions and professional development from 2012 to 2014. Beginning in 2012, the MDE launched massive, concurrent regional professional-development initiatives throughout the state to prepare district superintendents, school administrators, practicing teachers, and teachers in training for the new evaluation systems, both of which were aligned to the Common Core State Standards. Experiential evidence demonstrates the significance of a clear and comprehensive communication strategy when implementing a process of this scale as well as the importance of strong professional relationships between superintendents and principals and between principals and teachers when engaging in the goal-setting and evaluation processes. As revealed by survey, focus group, and interview data harvested from superintendents, principals, and teachers in independent studies by the Research and Curriculum Unit at Mississippi State University and the Southeast Comprehensive Center at SEDL, “buy-in” among educators is improving, though many initially struggled with and/or still lack confidence in navigating the new evaluation systems.
Presenters explore the major influences that shaped Mississippi’s principal- and teacher-evaluation systems and provide preliminary results of the efficacy of the new systems, the training that accompanied them, and the lessons learned during the past two years.
Author: Barbara Ridener, PhD
Chair, Department of Teaching and Learning
College of Education, Florida Atlantic University, USA
Paper Title: High Impact Teacher Training Transforming Geometry Knowledge and Instruction
Co-Author: Valerie J. Bristor, PhD
Dean, College of Education
Florida Atlantic University
Abstract Title: High Impact Teacher Training Transforming Geometry Knowledge and Instruction
Abstract (Limited to 300 words): High impact and sustained teacher training activities are being used to prepare new and transitioning geometry teachers. The high impact, constructivist strategies focus on developing geometry instruction through an investigative approach making use of both hands on and technology based activities over a year-long series of sustained trainings and support. Teachers are prepared to understand and implement the high level content and pedagogical knowledge they need in order to prepare students for success in high school geometry courses. A partnership between Florida Atlantic University and the Palm Beach County School District, funded by a State of Florida Teacher Quality Partnership grant, supports the trainings. Anecdotal records, surveys, pre and post tests and observations have been used to determine impact throughout the experiential program. The project’s design can be replicated to strengthen teacher knowledge that will lead to student success in other subjects.
Dr. Natchanok Jansawang
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Technology
Rajabhat Maha Sarakham University, THAILAND
Co-author: Kannikar Thongdonpriang
Department of Biology
Faculty of Science and Technology
Rajabhat Maha Sarakham University, THAILAND
Paper Title: Development of Science Teachers’ Use of Local Natural Science Resources in Maha Sarakham, Thailand.
This study was aimed at developing science teachers in using local natural science resources and local experts through workshop training; applying their knowledge and understanding in organizing their science learning activities and making use of local resources involving teachers, students, researchers and local wisdom experts in conducting plant biodiversity surveys; and sharing their science teaching experiences in using local science resources through knowledge management processes. The target group of the study consisted of 33 science teachers from 17 elementary and secondary schools in Maha Sarakham Province, Thailand. The study revealed that teachers’ use of natural resources includes the following: using resources as they are (84.6%), using resources under local wisdom experts’ guidance and supervision (80.8%), use of learning contents of elementary and secondary school levels is mostly in focus on ‘Creatures and Living Process’ and ‘Life and Environment’ (88.0%), and using local science resources as part of students’ science projects (58.0%). Frequency range of using in-school resources –particularly, natural science learning centers–for natural science learning was 1-32 times per year, averaging 9.85 times a year; while the range of teachers’ use of external resources for field study surveys was 0-20 times, averaging 3.54 times per year. Subjects’ opinions regarding their use of natural learning resources in organizing science learning activities under local wisdom experts are the following: utilizing local resources outside their schools helped increase their students’ learning and understanding of science; important factors conducive to success are teachers’ development in techniques and pedagogies of using natural resources, instructional processes and designs; organizing integrated activities should involve use of basic knowledge as well as use and study of learning resources in depth regarding forests, existing local plants and herbs; and teachers should be trained how to evaluate or assess students’ learning.
Key Words: Natural Science Resources, Local Wisdom, Science Teacher, Teacher Professional Development Thailand
Former Minnesota State Senator
Author of first charter school law and book, Zero Chance of Passage: The Pioneering Charter School Story
Co-author: Carrie Bakken
Founding Teacher at Avalon Charter School
St. Paul, Minnesota and 2012 Pahara-Aspen Institute Teacher Fellow
Presentation Topic: The Pioneering Charter School Story and Empowering Teacher Leadership
Over twenty years ago, the Minnesota legislature passed the first charter school law in the United States, with strong bipartisan support. Today 70% of the American public supports chartering and over 2.5 million students attend over 6,400 public charter schools, with over one million names on waiting lists.
Minnesota state senator Ember Reichgott Junge, the Democratic lawmaker who authored the first charter school law, sets the historical record straight and dispels the myths about chartering. Her book, Zero Chance of Passage: The Pioneering Charter School Story is the seminal reference on chartering, and provides tools, messages, and inspiration for today’s charter school pioneers.
Public charter schools were created to provide more choices of excellence and innovation for students. Also key to the origins of chartering was the opportunity for teachers to have full autonomy to create new learning opportunities.
Carrie Bakken, a founding teacher at Avalon Charter School in St. Paul, Minnesota, will describe how Avalon teachers stepped up to this opportunity and created and sustained a Teacher Professional Practice for 13 years. Her presentation includes eight practices identified in the book Trusting Teachers with School Success: What Happens When Teachers Call the Shots. These practices are indicative of high-performing organizations and result in improved learning outcomes for students.
Avalon School is a collaborative, democratic community, without a principal or director. Teachers share administrative duties, model democracy for students, and construct a curriculum and culture that places student empowerment at the center. Avalon is a powerful learning community because power is shared and nurtured.
There is evidence that Avalon’s framework for governance helps students acquire positive learning skills and attitudes. In 2012-2013, 99% of students agreed or strongly agreed that Avalon School is a positive learning environment, and 99% of students surveyed felt safe at Avalon. More evidence will be presented.
Bilge Uzun Ozer, PhD
Faculty of Education
Department of Educational Sciences
Division of Psychological Counselling and Guidance
Cumhuriyet Universitesi, TURKEY
Paper Title: Role of Family Environment on the Relationship between Academic Procrastination and Satisfaction with Life in a sample of Late Adolescents.
When explaining the youths’ satisfaction with life, scholars stress the importance of two environments: school and home. Home environments including family over control or lack of family cohesion are the factors for students to develop failure-avoidant tendency at school, which is an important reason for academic procrastination. In particular, the researchers have investigated academic performance such as low level of school grades and high levels of procrastination as issues related to home environment and life satisfaction. Thus the purpose of the present study was to test a path analytic model including the mediation effect of family environment on the relationship between academic procrastination and life satisfaction within a group of late adolescents. 322 late adolescents (221 female and 101 male) participated in the study. The mean age of the participants was 20.7 (SD = 1.7) with a range between 17 and 24. The participants were administered the Tuckman Procrastination Scale, Family Environment Scale and Satisfaction with Life Scale. Result of the analysis indicated the hypothesized model fit the data after trimming a path. Overall findings statistically supported that the family environment mediates the relationship between procrastination and life satisfaction. Based on the best fitting model, cohesion in the family environment provide life satisfaction, in turn, result in greater propensity for the children to decrease to use avoidant strategies such as procrastination. On the contrary, over control in the family lower the life satisfaction and produce using greater level of avoiding strategies, one of best known is procrastination in academic setting.
*Assistant Professor, Cumhuriyet University, Department of Educational Sciences, Division of Psychological Counselling and Guidance, firstname.lastname@example.org
Veronica Makwinja Morara
Senior Consultant at the Institute of Development Management (IDM)
Lecturer, University of Botswana, BOTSWANA
Co-author: Dineo Lekgetho, Deputy school head (Principal) at Phuduhudu primary school, Botswana
The Basarwa popularly known as the San/Bushmen people of southern Africa have an interesting culture that most Batswana speaking people do not understand. The government has decided to include the Basarwa communities in the development of the country to improve their welfare and socio-economic status. Several schools have been set up in remote areas and settlements to educate Basarwa children. Basarwa parents are illiterate and culturally do not separate from their kinship; let alone their children. In some instances children are removed from their families and sent to boarding schools. Some parents may set up their temporary shelter around the school to keep an eye on their children; especially to ascertain that their children are not corporally punished. Commonly in some schools children are whipped for late coming, poor performance or misbehavior. A qualitative study was carried out at Inalegolo, one of the Basarwa settlement in Botswana to establish how culture and the role of parents influence the learning of children. A phenomenological stance/framework was used for the study. The study examined issues that affect the educational access, participation and retention of Basarwa children in schools. The findings highlighted the fact that challenges to Basarwa education were mainly a result of the socio-cultural status and economic conditions. In turn experiences in schools become unbearable and affect their educational participation and retention. The study showed that the Basarwa appreciated the value of education but were discouraged by the nature of the education provided and its mode of delivery. The findings of the study also revealed interesting perspectives and facts about the Basarwa culture.
School of Education
Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan, ISRAEL
Prof. Chen Schechter, PhD
Vice Director and Head of the Teacher Education Department
School of Education
Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan, ISRAEL
Paper Title: Systems School Leadership
Systems-thinking is a conceptual framework advocating thinking about any given issue as a whole, emphasizing the interrelationships between its components rather than the components themselves. In recent decades, it has gained wide recognition as a way of dealing effectively with various organizational assignments and challenges. Its potential contribution to school leadership is considerable; however, to date, no study has explicitly focused on exploring the characteristics of school leadership that adopt the conceptual framework of systems-thinking. The current study explores school leadership that applies the systems view and performs at the systems level, aiming to present the Systems School Leadership (SSL) construct – an approach where principals lead schools through the systems-thinking concept and procedures.
The research is qualitative in nature. Participants were 28 school principals, 12 males and 16 females, selected as outstanding leaders by recommendation from their superintendents and according their schools’ achievements and climate. The study employed Informal conversational interviews as well as focus groups.
The findings of the study revealed four main characteristics of SSL: (1) Leading wholes – the conceptualization of all aspects of school life as one large system. (2) Considering interconnections – the awareness that countless mutual influences are at play among various elements within the school. (3) Adopting a multidimensional view – the ability to “juggle” between several aspects of a given issue simultaneously. (4) Evaluating significance of items – the ability to evaluate elements of school life according to their significance for the entire system.
Identifying these SSL characteristics may facilitate the development of practical processes for nurturing SSL during school principals’ preparatory programs and throughout school leaders’ careers. SSL may also be a framework and central theme for joint work of the education ministry’s superintendents and serving principals, focusing on collaborative learning opportunities both at the district and school levels.
Jennifer Heinhorst, Ed.D.
Project Manager/Adjunct Instructor
University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, USA
Paper Title: Parental Involvement: An Examination of Elementary Principal Commitment, Sensemaking, and Leadership to Engage Low-Income and/or Minority Parents
America’s schools seek to close the achievement gap by increasing the academic achievement of low-income and minority students. Parental involvement research asserts that parental involvement affects student academic success across all groups; however, few principals report the use of parental involvement strategies to increase student achievement.
This qualitative study examined elementary principals working with low-income and minority populations who express commitment and take leadership actions to engage low-income and/or minority parents in the school process. The study examined personal, academic, and professional factors influencing principals’ commitments, sensemaking and leadership actions to engage low-income and/or minority parents in the school process.
Principals’ and low-income and/or minority parents’ perceptions and actions were studied through interviews, observations and concept mapping to analyze the phenomenon of low-income and/or minority parental involvement and to analyze principal sensemaking to engage low-income and/or minority parents in the school process.
A developed framework illustrates findings as being situated in principals’ epistemology, axiology, and ontology. Epistemology details themes of personal family experiences and influential individuals. In axiology, themes of altruism, influence, and ownership emerged. In ontology, themes of connate meanings of parental involvement, planning for parental involvement, and principal tenacity emerged. These themes present concurrently in principal practice.
Antonio Aguilar Diaz, PhD
Bilingual Developmental School Psychologist, USA
Joanna Dávila, PhD
Full Time Faculty
Ana G. Mendez University System’s Capital Area Campus
Academic Director of Ana G. Méndez University System –
Capital Area Campus
Luis J. Pentón-Herrera, M.Ed., M.S.
Adjunct Professor, Ana G. Méndez University System-Capital Area Campus and Certified K-12 teacher in the state of Virginia
Paper Title: Bridging linguistic and teaching skills: the Discipline Dual Language Immersion Program
Latinos now constitute the largest minority group in the United States and the fastest growing segment of its school-age population. The U.S. Census Bureau predicts that by 2021, one of four U.S. students will be Latino. Latinos are the least educated of all major ethnic groups. Although a large gap exists between college completion rates of whites and blacks, both groups show steady growth. However, the growth in college degrees for Latinos is almost flat. This fact has enormous consequences for the United States, as the job market continues to demand more education and Latinos continue to make up a larger and larger portion of the workforce. Being aware of all the aforementioned challenges, the Ana G. Méndez University System decided to embark into a demanding journey, to develop a teaching model that might help Hispanic/Latino students not only to strength their linguistic skills, but to enhance their verbal competencies in English. The Capital Area Campus, located in Wheaton, offers the only Discipline Based Dual Language Immersion Model (English and Spanish) at the Bachelors and Masters level. Latino students begin their college experience facing language demands and culture shocks. These overwhelming challenges can be addressed by helping them understand school expectations and think differently about the role college plays at promoting human development while respecting their cultural views. Training Bilingual professionals remains a field that still needs to be nurtured. Although Hispanics/Latinos/as have gradually immersed themselves into various fields, they still represent a small amount of the entire student population pursuing college education. Participants will expand their professional skills through the presentation of practical intervention strategies and the use of a Discipline Dual Language Immersion Model based on a constructivist framework.
Paul C. Corrigan, Ed.D.
Senior Education Development Officer
City University of Hong Kong, CHINA
Paper Title: Pre-Service Teacher Education for English For the Medium of Instruction (EFMI)
English as the Medium of Instruction (EMI) is gaining ground as an internationalizing policy at universities in countries where English is normally used as a second language. However, EMI as developed pedagogy in support of such a policy has not yet firmly established itself at many such institutions.
Many new teachers at such institutions may face the triple challenge of: 1) teaching at a tertiary institution for the first time; 2) teaching in their second language; 3) teaching students who are learning in their second language. Consequently, as part of their pre-service teacher education they may need training in English For the Medium of Instruction (EFMI). EFMI is envisioned here as an integration of language and pedagogy, especially in institutions where English is not the first language of all or nearly all students and faculty. EFMI envisions the integration of the content of teaching approaches, methods, and techniques with competence and performance in English.
At an EMI university in Hong Kong, about new 180 PhD and MPhil students who might soon take up undergraduate teaching duties were interviewed to determine ability to perform in EFMI. Those identified as needing supplementary work in EFMI enrolled in two supplementary seminars involving strategies training. At the same time, they took a pre-service, introductory teacher education course.
At the end of the term, they were asked to evaluate the effectiveness of the two supplementary seminars.
This paper presentation will: 1) provide background on the EMI university and its launch of the EFMI seminars; 2) explain the interview format and the trends which were observed during the interviews; 3) describe the EFMI strategies training sessions for candidates who were identified through the interviews as needing the sessions; 4) present and discuss results of a survey of candidates on the effectiveness of the strategies training sessions.
Michael Amakyi, Ph.D.
Educational Planning and Administration
University of Cape Coast, Ghana
Paper Title: Praxis in Trainee-Teacher Preparation in Ghana
Trainee teachers in Ghana are expected to go through a three-year preparatory program that consists of a two-year on-campus academic preparation and a one-year off- campus practice teaching; classified as praxis, to qualify as professional teachers. A mixed method design, which used survey research and basic interpretive study, was conducted to examine the extent to which the one-year off-campus practice teaching prepares trainee teachers for the teaching profession. Data were collected using questionnaire and semi-structured interviews. The questionnaire was administered to the study respondents who were made up of a purposively sampled 112 novice teachers who have just completed their first year of teaching. The semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15 of the respondents. The study revealed that the respondents perceived the one-year off campus practice teaching as an essential transitional period to the teaching profession. The respondents identified the use of mentors, supervision from tutors of the colleges of education, and peer assessments as most helpful factors that facilitated the praxis. The respondents also identified courses in human relations and child psychology as most important and relevant courses. The respondents however, identified team planning and differentiated instructions as notable pedagogies that received minimal attention in the schools. Also, the respondents indicated that they faced the challenge of being treated as students rather than teachers who are learning on the job. The study recommended a formal and frequent communication between the colleges of education that train the teachers and the schools of practice that work with the trainee teachers. This will clarify expectations set for trainee teachers.
Ph.D. Candidate, Higher Ed Administration
ESL Initiative Special Assistant, Reves Center for International Studies
The College of William and Mary
Williamsburg, VA, USA
Co-author: Dr. Susan McKelvey
Suna Associates, LLC
Co-author: Dr. Joan A. Rhodes
Reading and Early/Elementary
School of Education
Virginia Commonwealth University
Co-author: Dr. Valerie Robnolt
Elementary Reading Education
Department of Teaching and Learning
Virginia Commonwealth University
Paper Title: Teacher Training for Aspiring Teachers of English Language Learners: Using Experiential Learning to Improve Instruction.
Experiential learning theory places experience at the center of learning. Kolb’s four-stage cycle of learning suggests that effective learners must engage fully in each stage of the learning cycle—feeling, reflection, thinking, and action. Additionally, the learning space must provide a supportive, but challenging, environment for the learner. In this paper, we assess the alignment of Kolb’s experiential learning with ACT-ESL, our professional development (PD) model to train aspiring teachers of English Language Learners (ELLs). Data from pre-post summer surveys were analyzed to determine changes in participants’ understanding of key concepts and instructional strategies presented during the PD. Cohen’s d analysis examined changes in teachers’ knowledge and understanding of practices. Open-ended responses were analyzed using an inductive coding and constant comparative method to identify common themes which were used to make improvements for subsequent years of implementation. Analysis indicates that the week-long PD had a large effect (d > 2.00 for each scale), regardless of any previous training in ELL instructional strategies. Findings show that not only did the PD model incorporate the cycle of learning and tenets of Kolb’s theory of experiential learning, but qualitative and quantitative data evidenced teacher learning.
Keywords: Kolb, experiential learning, cycle of learning, professional development, English Language Learners, ELLs, cycle of learning, content teachers, ESL, ACT-ESL, Summer Institute
Assistant Professor of Educational Leadership and Post secondary Education
University of Northern Iowa in Cedar Falls, USA
Paper Title: Answering the Call to Teach: One State’s Collaborative Effort to Address Alternative Licensure
The need for highly qualified teachers who bring strong pedagogy, a passion for teaching and in-depth content knowledge is evident across the country and throughout the world. In order to address this need, three Iowa Universities have joined together to create the RAPIL (Regents Alternative Program for Iowa Licensure) program for candidates with a content degree who complete a year of coursework focused on effective instructional strategies and serve for one year as an intern teacher prior to being granted their initial teaching license. The program, now in its fourth year of implementation, is based on a cohort structure of courses offered both face to face and on-line supported by a building level mentor and evaluator as well as an outside evaluator. Candidates come from content backgrounds including Engineering, Accounting, Nursing, Physics and World Languages and utilize their background knowledge and experience to engage their middle and high school students in authentic application of course content. On-going program evaluation indicates that the teachers perform as well as or better than traditionally prepared teachers when they enter the classroom as beginning teachers. The level of maturity, understanding of the workforce and high level of content expertise along with a strong desire to work in the K-12 system combine to produce high quality teachers with exceptional insight into the need for knowledge and skill development aligned to workplace success.
This presentation will highlight the development of the program, various aspects of the program and reactions of participants and their evaluators. Also included will be a discussion of the challenges, revisions and future plans for the program.
Presenter: Gandham Rufus Jayanandam, PhD, Assistant Director, Ambedkar Open University, INDIA
Paper Title: Substituting the State: School Management Committees in Andhra Pradesh, India
There is a major shift in the school system in the context of the liberalization initiated in India in 1990s. First is the massive growth of private schools and the shift of the middle class children to them. The government schools as a result are left with children from low income and low caste backgrounds. Second important change pertains to the supervision of the public schools. There is a perceptible decline in the official inspection mechanism of schools. Instead School Management Committees are assigned with various administrative and supervisory responsibilities. These committees, formed with members elected by the parents of the school children, have in a significant way been designed as a substitute to government inspectors. This raises important questions about their effectiveness in performing regulatory and supervisory functions. Thus can the committee members being from low social position and being mostly non-illiterate perform such important functions. There has been a perceptible decline of the governmental support in terms of recruitment of teachers. In the place of full time teachers we witness in most of the schools, the appointment of local youth with inadequate qualifications as teacher volunteers known as Vidya bodhakulu with a consolidated remuneration. This has impacted on the quality of teaching and commitment on the part of these volunteers. This paper presents the findings on the above crucial issues based on a study of three schools in Mahabubnagar district, Andhra Pradesh, India. The study is based on both primary and secondary sources. Data is collected through both questionnaire schedules and informal interviews with parents, students, teachers and local authorities on the formation and functioning of the committees, the volunteers and the quality of instruction.
Christian Anderson, Ed. D.
Baltimore County Public Schools, USA
Paper Title: The Beliefs and Practices of Urban School Mathematics Teachers
In the subject of mathematics, African American students are not achieving at the levels of their white and Asian counterparts on all measures of achievement including standardized assessments. This achievement gap is pervasive in urban schools. The existence and persistence of this mathematics achievement gap signifies a breakdown in the teaching and learning of mathematics for African American students. Researchers have found that teachers’ beliefs have a profound influence on the instructional practices enacted in the classroom; however, identifying the specific instructional practices that are aligned with individual beliefs is absent from the literature. The current study attempted to understand urban middle school mathematics teachers’ beliefs about their African American students and determine the influence of those beliefs on their instructional practice by conducting an interpretive case study. The results of this study revealed the existence of three beliefs that the participants held about their African American students. The three beliefs are (a) African American students have the natural ability to learn mathematics, (b) African American students’ learning is enhanced when they engage in out-of-school learning experiences, and (c) African American students need classroom instruction that emphasizes conceptual understanding. Moreover, these beliefs resulted in specific instructional practices that were driven by high expectations, rooted in differentiated instruction, and promoted rich classroom discourse. Results of this study have implications on the manner in which pre-service teachers are trained and inducted into the profession; thus leading to the development of teacher competency framework for mathematics teachers.
Elsayed Elshabrawy Ahmed Hassanein, PhD
Faculty of Education
Al-Azhar University, EGYPT
Paper Title: Changing Teachers’ Negative Attitudes towards Persons with Intellectual Disabilities
The current study aims at changing negative attitudes towards the intellectually disabled. The intervention is based on the argument that providing information is not sufficient to achieve lasting change of attitudes towards the disabled and that contact is required as an additional element to show positive results. Therefore, a pre-post-test intervention was conducted including three conditions: (a) cognitive intervention; (b) cognitive and behavioral intervention involving contact with the target group; (c) no-intervention control. The sample consisted of 18 teachers with six teachers in each group. Following baseline assessments of attitudes, attitude change was measured immediately following the intervention and at a follow-up twelve weeks post-intervention. The cognitive intervention provided information about intellectual disability and challenged stereotypic conceptions about the intellectually disabled. The behavioral intervention consisted of engaging in work with and training intellectually disabled in sheltered workshops. The results showed that the cognitive intervention alone did not result in significant changes in attitudes towards the intellectually disabled. However, the combined cognitive-behavioral intervention resulted in greater attitude change than the no-intervention condition, both immediately post-intervention and at a twelve weeks follow-up. The findings are discussed with regard to models of attitude change. Recommendations for teacher training programs are also presented.
University of Ontario Institute of Technology, CANADA
Paper Title: Teacher websites as a method for community building and parental engagement in student learning
This presentation explores how the creation and use of teacher websites can engage parents and connect parents and the community to student learning. Researchers suggest that parent engagement in their child’s learning process can increase student success in schools (Ontario Ministry of Education, 2012). Therefore, Teacher Candidates in the Faculty of Education at the University of Ontario Institute of Technology learn how to create effective teacher websites to promote healthy development of students, engage parents, and connect students and parents to the community. This presentation explores the preliminary results of this study which includes the research supporting effective website development and use by teachers and several case studies of actual websites created by teacher candidates and teachers currently in the field. Stage two of this study will be to collect qualitative feedback in the form of surveys and semi-structured interviews with teachers, teacher candidates, parents, and students on the creation and use of websites in their communities. The research questions will be centred on the a) creation, b) use, and c) effectiveness of teacher websites within the context of student learning, parental engagement, community building, and healthy child/adolescent development.
School Based Management Committee System: An Essential Ingredient Necessary For Community Involvement In Nigerian Schools.
Topic Area: Ingredient necessary to create productive parents and community involvement in schools.
Keywords: School Based Management Committee System, Rural-Urban dwellers and effectiveness
Presentation format: Paper Session
Description of the paper: The concept of community participation has been a major issue in Nigerian Education System on which several policies were devised by Nigerian Government but with little or no result. The most current policy evolved, the School Based Management committee (SBMC) is bewildered with deficiencies as unveiled by this paper. Some suggestions that would fast track the success of the policy in achieving sustainable educational quality and more productive participation by the community were proposed
Arfe Yucedag-Ozcan, Ph.D
Fulltime Doctoral Research Faculty
School for Advanced Studies
University of Phoenix, USA
Co-author: Sharon K. Metcalfe, Ed.D.
Associate Dean for Education Programs
Mount Vernon Nazarene University, USA
Paper Title: Experiences of First Generation Immigrant Turkish Mothers with the American Public Educational System
Studies that found a positive correlation between parents’ background and students’ academic achievements abound in the education literature. Background may include economic, ethnic, educational, and social influences. In reflecting the population diversity, the American public school system has faced the challenge of serving students with diverse backgrounds. Parents and schools need to come together to achieve the common goal of well-educated children. There is a need for new studies to understand the expectations and experiences of parents within the school system who are relatively new to this country and the school system. This study aims to explore the unique experiences of a group of first generation immigrant Turkish mothers with the US public school system. An Interpretive Phenomenological analysis method was chosen to conduct this study. Data was collected using face to face, semi-structured interviews with participants who resided in a metropolitan area in the Southwestern United States. Overall, mothers believed that American public schools lacked academic rigor, however, they were pleased the teachers were successfully motivating the children and making school enjoyable. Although the school system was considered confusing for the mothers, once the mothers received information from the teachers or principal, they utilized the information to advance their children’s education. Due to the economic capital they had, the participants were able to mobilize outside resources for their children, such as attending various after school programs. Cultural Ecology theory seemed to work with these participants. Because the parents immigrated voluntarily, they were able to make the effort to learn and negotiate the system for the benefit of their children. Their advantageous educational and economic backgrounds appeared to aid with this adaptation process. The findings of this study seem to support the literature regarding a positive relationship between highly educated immigrant parents with higher economic capital and their children who have fewer academic and social problems.
Ms. Heena Jiwani
Institute of Education, London/ Aga Khan Council for USA
Paper Title: Exploring Immigrant Parental Engagement in Religious Education as a Teacher Leader
A child’s first teacher is the parent(s). This notion is clear when we see a baby walk and talk for the first time or learn to feed him or herself. So how do we forget this idea as the child grows older and begins formal education? The parents are still a crucial component of the child’s educational growth, whether that be in the formal school space, or personal space the family has created for themselves (i.e. the home) (Carreón et al., 2005). It is important the student has a medium to continue his or her growth outside of the formal classroom setting, to take what the formal classroom teaches and internalize it with the lessons learned at home. This discussion looks further into parental involvement outside of the classroom and its implications in the classroom as seen by student participation. The notion of building a community of learning rather than individual learners will be the key message received from this discussion. As the African proverb says, the entire village is responsible for the child’s upbringing; but what we forget to see is that in our society today, we need teacher leaders to take initiative to engage the ‘village’ for the benefit of the ‘child’. Parental engagement in student learning can be enhanced when parents feel more competent and confident in their understanding of the material. This research undertakes an exploration into parent and teacher partnerships in the religious education of an Afghan Isma’ili population in Essen, Germany. It aims to understand how parents engage with their child’s religious education through student reflection, teacher observations and parent-teacher interactions.
Tamara Korenman, Ph.D.
School of Education
Saint Xavier University, Chicago, USA
Paper Title: Citizenship education: Current perspectives from secondary student teachers
The presenter discusses findings of qualitative research inspired by the work of Feldmann (2007), who examined current perspectives of secondary school teachers of all disciplines on civic education in Midwestern and southwestern United States. The researcher adopted the theoretical framework of Feldmann’s study and expands the scope of the study by investigating factors that may contribute to differences in teachers’ perspectives on definition of civics and its role in the early childhood, elementary, and secondary school curriculum. The proposed study will also examine teachers’ awareness on approaches to integrate civics into instruction and their ability to locate resources for civics integration. 30 student teachers (early childhood, elementary, and secondary of all subjects) participated in the study. They completed a survey with open ended questions adopted from Feldmann’s study with modifications. While the answers of student teachers may not represent perspectives of the entire teacher candidate population, they may suggest on how they perceive civic education both from their own educational backgrounds and their current experiences at schools. The project reports the perceived state of civic education as viewed by teacher candidates in an effort to identify teacher education curricular needs in the area of civic education
Lecturer in Mathematics Education
School of Education, University of the Witwatersrand, SOUTH AFRICA
Associate Editor of Pythagoras Journal (www.pythagoras.org.za)
Paper Title: Same practices, different opportunities for pre-service teacher education in multilingual teacher education classrooms
Using Wenger’s communities of practice theory as a theoretical and methodological approach, the study reported in this paper undertook to examine the different mathematical practices-in-use in two different multilingual teacher education classrooms. One of the teachers was from University A (TEIA) and the other was from University B (TEIB). The two universities were chosen because they present contrasting contexts of pre-service teacher education. TEIA is frequented by pre-service teachers (PSTs) and teacher educators (TEs) for whom English (LoLT) is an additional language. TEIB is frequented by PSTs of different linguistic backgrounds, taught by a good number of teacher educators whose first language is the language of teaching and learning. Qualitative analysis of classroom observations of these two teacher educators revealed that even though they used mostly the same mathematical practices in their teaching, the way in which these practices were used in the two classroom communities opened up different possibilities for the pre-service teachers as far as preparing them for teaching mathematics (in multilingual classrooms) is concerned. In one university (TEIA), the short procedural questions that required short procedural answers, together with the authoritative communicative approach that characterized classroom dialogue limited PSTs’ opportunity to engage in extended interactions using both the language of instruction and the mathematical language. In TEIB, within the practices-in use, because there was a high level of interanimation of ideas and extended dialogue around the concepts at hand, the pre-service teachers had the opportunity of developing both spoken language and mathematical language while simultaneously developing mathematical meanings; One implication of this is that unlike the pre-service teachers in University A, those in University B were more exposed to ways of dealing with the triple challenge of teaching in multilingual classrooms – paying attention to mathematics, attention to the LoLT and attention to mathematical language.
Joseph Adekunle Akande
Head Of Department, Primary Education Studies
Fct College Of Education, Zuba-Abuja
Co-author: Caroline Aduke Tolorunleke
Lecturer, Department of Educational Psychology
FCT College of Education, Zuba-Abuja
Paper Title: A Survey of Experiential Learning Opportunities in Colleges of Education
Experiential learning has become one of the important and effective instructional methods for improving teaching and learning at all levels of education. Students learn better when they can act and discover new facts for themselves. This study investigated experiential learning opportunities available in Colleges of Education. It is a descriptive research with emphasis on survey design. The population comprised all Colleges of Education in North Central geopolitical zone of Nigeria: made up of six states, out of which six colleges were selected and 900 respondents involved in the study as sample. A questionnaire was designed and validated by the researchers to collect relevant data. The data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The result indicated that the traditional teacher centre approach is still widely being used and there is need to create better experiential learning opportunities in such institutions for trainee teachers.
John M. Fischer, PhD
College of Education and Human Development
Bowling Green State University, USA
Co-author: Grzegorz Mazurkiewicz, PhD
Institute of Management
Jagiellonian University, POLAND
Paper Title: Educational Leadership in Poland and the United States: Constructing Concepts through Cross-Cultural and Cross-National Processes
In a global age ideas and concepts move across national and cultural borders. Answers to questions such as: What is democracy? How do you improve the quality of education? What does leadership look like? Are answered from our own cultural and societal context, and deepened through concepts found in the media, scholarly work and purposeful efforts that cross borders. In this paper we will work to describe understandings of the educational leadership emerging in both Poland and the United States. Through discussion of competencies defined as critically important in the work of educational leaders, we will share what individuals involved in our work have come to conceptualize as what leadership “is” and how leadership “looks like”. The movement of conceptions of leadership around the world is impacting the processes by with new leaders are trained, and existing educational leaders are evaluated. Educational leaders, as key participants in the improvement of educational quality, impact the lives and work of others. Accepting the theoretical underpinnings of social constructivism means agreeing that our reality, including our expectations of leaders, is constructed through human interaction, communication, and cooperation. When this interaction and cooperation extends across cultural and national borders new assumptions and complexities emerge. Connecting two streams: constructivist approaches to reality, and importance of educational leadership, leads to questions about the nature of awareness and the types of the assumptions present in discourse focused on leadership. The main problem that becomes evident is related to mental models of leadership carried by educational leaders. Projects that work to bring theorists, and practitioners together problematize this process of constructing the world and deepening our conceptions of educational leadership. Results of these efforts in a country identified as having significant improvement in its system of education reflect new understandings of what we can learn from such endeavors.
Dr. Amy McCormack, Senior Vice President of Finance and Administration, Dominican University
Co-author: Peter Eckel
Paper title: Internationalization of College Campuses and the Role of Presidential Leadership
Colleges and universities not only have the opportunity, but they also have the responsibility, to shape globally-minded citizens. In January 2013, Under Secretary of Education Martha Kanter co-authored the lead article in Change: The Magazine of Higher Education, arguing that “knowledgeable, engaged, globally minded citizens hold the key to this country’s shared democratic values, prosperity, and security” (Kanter & Schenider, 2013). This research examines the facets of internationalization on college campuses and the role of presidential leadership. Leaders who are committed to developing the next generation of globally-astute citizens have found ways to internationalize their campus and promote global learning.
This multiple case study highlights the internationalization on five college campuses that have been nationally recognized for their comprehensive approach. The findings include three primary levers that are used to internationalize: study abroad, recruitment of international students, and curriculum integration. The research focuses on the role of presidents and how they can advance or sustain internationalization, and highlights the challenges. The leadership strategies employed by presidents are a particular focus of this study.
The analysis found that multiple leadership perspectives (or frames) are engaged to advance internationalization. Leadership strategies were found to be consistent with those frames identified in the scholarly work of Bolman and Deal (2008) which values multi-frame leadership approaches including structural, human resource, political and symbolic. The study also found that, depending on the history of international education at the institution and the personal and professional characteristics of the president, one or more dominant approaches can be used to sustain and elevate an existing international agenda. Those tools that need to be leveraged include an understanding of institutional history and culture, a mission and strategic plan that prioritize international education, and an organizational infrastructure that supports a comprehensive approach. The ability to advance internationalization and integrate all the disparate parts depends on an institutional narrative, leadership lifestyle, and effective use of human and financial resources. The analysis found that presidential leadership is an important factor in making internationalization part of the institutional ethos.